Moldy Food Research
Moldy food is often not as evident as seen on this bread in the photo. I have bought grain before that smelled odd to me, but looked fine until I got out a strong magnifying glass and found the beginning growth of mold on it that was not evident to the naked eye.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;135C(3):337-43.
Protective effect of modified glucomannans against aurofusarin-induced changes in quail egg and embryo.
Dvorska JE1, Surai PF, Speake BK, Sparks NH.
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannans (Mycosorb) on egg yolk and liver of the day-old quail after aurofusarin inclusion in the maternal diet. Fifty-four 45-day-old Japanese quail were divided into three groups and were fed ad libitum a corn-soya diet balanced in all nutrients. The diet of the experimental quail was supplemented with aurofusarin at the level of 26.4 mg/kg feed in the form of Fusarium graminearum culture enriched with aurofusarin or with aurofusarin plus Mycosorb at 1 g/kg feed. Eggs obtained after 8 weeks of feeding were analysed and incubated in standard conditions of 37.5 degrees C/55% RH. Samples of quail liver were collected from day-old hatchlings. Main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the egg yolk were analysed by gas chromatography, and tocopherols and tocotrienols were analysed by HPLC-based methods. Inclusion of aurofusarin in the maternal diet was associated with decreased proportions of docosahexaenoic acid and increased proportions of linoleic acid in major lipid fractions of the egg yolk as well as with decreased concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols in egg yolk and liver of a day-old quail. Inclusion of modified glucomannans (Mycosorb) into the quail diet simultaneously with aurofusarin showed a significant protective effect against changes in PUFA and antioxidant composition in the egg yolk and liver of quail. It is suggested that a combination of mycotoxin adsorbents and natural antioxidants could be the next step in counteracting mycotoxins in animal feed.
PMID: 12927908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 May;145(4):582-7. Epub 2007 Feb 12.
Protective effect of modified glucomannans and organic selenium against antioxidant depletion in the chicken liver due to T-2 toxin-contaminated feed consumption.
Dvorska JE1, Pappas AC, Karadas F, Speake BK, Surai PF.
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of T-2 toxin on the antioxidant status of the chicken and to study possible protective effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb) and organic selenium (Sel-Plex). Inclusion of T-2 toxin in the chickens' diet (8.1 mg/kg for 21 days) was associated with significant decreases in the concentrations of selenium (Se)(by 32.2%), alpha-tocopherol (by 41.4%), total carotenoids (by 56.5%), ascorbic acid (by 43.5%) and reduced glutathione (by 56.3%) in the liver, as well as a decrease in the hepatic activity of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) (by 36.8%). However, inclusion of modified glucomannans into the T-2 toxin-contaminated diet provided a partial protection against the detrimental effects of the mycotoxin on the antioxidant defences in the chicken liver. For example, the Se concentration in the liver was restored completely, although the Se-GSH-Px activity in the liver increased to only 81% of its control value. These protective effects of modified glucomannas were associated with a 45% reduction of lipid peroxidation in the liver in comparison to the effects of T-2 toxin alone. A combination of modified glucomannas with organic Se was shown to provide further protection against toxin-induced antioxidant depletion and lipid peroxidation in the chicken liver. Thus, the data clearly indicate a major protective effect of the mycotoxin-binder in combination with organic Se against the detrimental consequences of T-2 toxin-contaminated feed consumption by growing chickens.
PMID: 17350343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Jan;57(1):165-86. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100764. Epub 2012 Oct 10.
Masked mycotoxins: a review.
Berthiller F1, Crews C, Dall'Asta C, Saeger SD, Haesaert G, Karlovsky P, Oswald IP, Seefelder W, Speijers G, Stroka J.
The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders.
© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
PMID: 23047235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3561696 Free PMC Article
J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Jan;110(1):118-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04864.x. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
Glyphosate affects micro-organisms in rhizospheres of glyphosate-resistant soybeans.
Zobiole LH1, Kremer RJ, Oliveira RS Jr, Constantin J.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean production increases each year because of the efficacy of glyphosate for weed management. A new or 'second' generation of GR soybean (GR2) is now commercially available for farmers that is being promoted as higher yielding relative to the previous, 'first generation' (GR1) cultivars. Recent reports show that glyphosate affects the biology and ecology of rhizosphere micro-organisms in GR soybean that affect yield. The objective of this research was to evaluate the microbiological interactions in the rhizospheres of GR2 and GR1 soybean and the performance of the cultivars with different rates of glyphosate applied at different growth stages.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A greenhouse study was conducted using GR1 and GR2 soybean cultivars grown in a silt loam soil. Glyphosate was applied at V2, V4 and V6 growth stages at three rates. Plants harvested at R1 growth stage had high root colonization by Fusarium spp.; reduced rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads, Mn-reducing bacteria, and indoleacetic acid-producing rhizobacteria; and reduced shoot and root biomass.
Glyphosate applied to GR soybean, regardless of cultivar, negatively impacts the complex interactions of microbial groups, biochemical activity and root growth that can have subsequent detrimental effects on plant growth and productivity.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:
The information presented here will be crucial in developing strategies to overcome the potential detrimental effects of glyphosate in GR cropping systems.
Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Brazilian Government works.
PMID: 20880215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
European Journal of Agronomy, 31(3), pp. 133-143. doi : 10.1016/j.eja.2009.07.003 Access to full text
"Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. In the Canadian Prairies.",
Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., Gehl, D.T., Selles, F., Huber, D., and Basnyat, P. (2009).
Fusarium pathogens cause important diseases, such as root/crown rot and Fusarium head blight (FHB), in cereal crops. These diseases can be caused by similar Fusarium spp. Common root rot (CRR) is widespread in the western Canadian Prairies, whereas FHB has potential of becoming an important disease in this region. There are no commercially available cereal cultivars with good resistance to these diseases. It is therefore important to identify agronomic practices that could affect levels of Fusarium pathogens in cereals. This review deals primarily with the effects of tillage systems and glyphosate use on the development of FHB and CRR in wheat and barley in eastern Saskatchewan. Although the FHB study in 1999-2002 indicated that environment was the most important factor determining FHB development, previous glyphosate use and tillage practice were among the production factors with the greatest association with FHB. Overall, disease was highest in crops under minimum-till management. Previous glyphosate use was consistently associated with higher FHB levels caused by the most important FHB pathogens, Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium graminearum. Cochliobolus sativus, the most common CRR pathogen, was negatively associated with previous glyphosate use, while F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, and other fungi were positively associated, suggesting that glyphosate might cause changes in fungal communities. The occurrence and isolation of F. avenaceum from cereal residues were greater under reduced-till than conventional-till while C. sativus was most common under conventional-till, and F. graminearum was lowest under zero-till. Previous glyphosate applications were again correlated positively with F. avenaceum and negatively with C. sativus. These observations agreed with results from the FHB and CRR studies. These are the first studies that established a relationship between previous glyphosate use and increased Fusarium infection of spikes and subcrown internodes of wheat and barley, or Fusarium colonization of crop residues. However, because of the close association between noncereal crops, reduced tillage and glyphosate use, it was not possible to completely separate the effects of these factors on Fusarium infections. Determining the relative contribution of these popular production trends to the development of diseases caused by Fusarium spp. are essential for devising appropriate agronomic recommendations to prevent their further spread in western Canada, and to reduce the impact that these diseases are having in areas where they are already established. The consistent association between previous glyphosate use and Fusarium infections also warrants further research to elucidate the nature of this association and the underlying mechanisms determining these effects.
Chemosphere. 2008 Apr;71(7):1386-91. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.006. Epub 2008 Jan 4.
Interactions between glyphosate and autochthonous soil fungi surviving in aqueous solution of glyphosate.
Krzysko-Lupicka T1, Sudol T.
The survival of autochthonous fungi in soil treated with 1mM aqueous solution of glyphosate was investigated. Significant differences in the total number of fungi in the studied objects were observed, and additionally significant qualitative changes were encountered. The dominating group of fungi belonged to genus Fusarium: Fusarium solani H30, Fusarium solani H50 and Fusarium oxysporum H80. Interactions between the isolated strains of fungi and varying concentrations of glyphosate were determined. The studied strains possessed high tolerance against the applied doses of glyphosate (0.5-2.0 mM). In the presence of glyphosate (as a sole source of phosphorus) applied in concentrations of 1.0-1.5 mM the increase in dry mass of the tested fungi was highly significant. In the presence of glyphosate the phenotypic changes of studied strains were observed as was shown as the presence of colorants being indicators of such changes. Thus, their color and intensity depended on the age, pH and species present in the culture. The degradation of glyphosate by studied fungi was determined by means of TLC. Two types of compounds were formed. One of them (Rf=0.21-0.35) contained free amino group but was not either glycine nor AMPA. Survival of Fusarium in soil environment is potentially dangerous.
PMID: 18177917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Phytopathology. 2000 Jan;90(1):57-66. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.1.57.
Effects of Herbicides on Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and Development of Sudden Death Syndrome in Glyphosate-Tolerant Soybean.
Sanogo S, Yang XB, Scherm H.
ABSTRACT Sudden death syndrome of soybean, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is a disease of increasing economic importance in the United States. Although the ecology of sudden death syndrome has been extensively studied in relation to crop management practices such as tillage, irrigation, and cultivar selection, there is no information on the effects of herbicides on this disease. Three herbicides (lactofen, glyphosate, and imazethapyr) commonly used in soybean were evaluated for their effects on the phenology of F. solani f. sp. glycines and the development of sudden death syndrome in four soybean cultivars varying in resistance to the disease and in tolerance to glyphosate. Conidial germination, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro were reduced by glyphosate and lactofen. In growth-chamber and greenhouse experiments, there was a significant increase in disease severity and frequency of isolation of F. solani f. sp. glycines from roots of all cultivars after application of imazethapyr or glyphosate compared with the control treatment (no herbicide applied). Conversely, disease severity and isolation frequency of F. solani f. sp. glycines decreased after application of lactofen. Across all herbicide treatments, severity of sudden death syndrome and isolation frequency were lower in disease-resistant than in susceptible cultivars. Results suggest that glyphosate-tolerant and -nontolerant cultivars respond similarly to infection by F. solani f. sp. glycines after herbicide application.
PMID: 18944572 [PubMed] Free full text
J AOAC Int. 1996 Jul-Aug;79(4):875-82.
Mycotoxins transmitted into beer from contaminated grains during brewing.
Studies with aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisins B1 and B2 added at various stages of the brewing process show that these mycotoxins (or metabolites) may be transmitted from contaminated grains into beer. Citrinin does not survive the mashing step. Mycotoxins in beer could originate from the malted grain or from adjuncts. Although high incidences and concentrations of aflatoxins and zearalenone have been found in local beers brewed in Africa, aflatoxins have not been detected in European beers. Zearalenone and alpha- or beta-zearalenol (the metabolite likely to occur) have not been found in Canadian and European beers, except for one sample analyzed by thin-layer chromatography only. Ochratoxin A rarely has been detected at > 1 ng/mL in beer; liquid chromatographic methods with a 0.05-0.1 ng/mL detection limit, however, have shown moderately high incidences of trace levels. Deoxynivalenol, which survives the brewing process, has been found with high incidence in Canadian and European beers, with concentration of > 200 ng/mL reported in several German beers. Fumonisins B1 and B2 occur to a limited extent in beer.
PMID: 8757446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Jul;93(9):2116-20. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6014. Epub 2013 Jan 3.
Analysis of aflatoxins, caffeine, nicotine and heavy metals in Palestinian multifloral honey from different geographic regions.
Swaileh KM1, Abdulkhaliq A.
Honey is a healthy and nutritious natural product. However, it may contain some natural as well as anthropogenic contaminants that can affect consumer health. The present study was aimed at analysing the content of aflatoxins, nicotine, caffeine and heavy metals in Palestinian multifloral honey.
The results indicated the presence of variable amounts of aflatoxins (0.5-22 µg kg?¹, mean 12.1 µg kg?¹) in all samples analysed, with the highest levels in honey from humid hot semi-coastal regions. Caffeine was found in 80% of honey samples analysed at levels from 94 to 3583 µg kg?¹ (mean 1567 µg kg?¹). High levels were recorded in regions where citrus cultivation is common. Nicotine was detected in 67% of honey samples analysed at concentrations between 178 and 9389 µg kg?¹ (mean 1567 µg kg?¹). High levels were recorded in honey samples from the Northwest Plains where tobacco plantation is practised. Cd and Pb levels in all honey samples were below detection limits, while levels of other toxic metals were generally low.
All honey samples contained aflatoxins, mostly in health-threatening concentrations. Caffeine and nicotine were recorded in 80 and 67% of honey samples respectively. Heavy metal levels were generally low.
© 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Feb;13(1):91-100.
Hypothesis: does ochratoxin A cause testicular cancer?
Little is known about the etiology of testicular cancer, which is the most common cancer among young men. Epidemiologic data point to a carcinogenic exposure in early life or in utero, but the nature of the exposure is unknown. We hypothesize that the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, is a cause of testicular cancer. Ochratoxin A is a naturally occurring contaminant of cereals, pigmeat, and other foods and is a known genotoxic carcinogen in animals. The major features of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer (a high incidence in northern Europe, increasing incidence over time, and associations with high socioeconomic status, and with poor semen quality) are all associated with exposure to ochratoxin A. Exposure of animals to ochratoxin A via the diet or via in utero transfer induces adducts in testicular DNA. We hypothesize that consumption of foods contaminated with ochratoxin A during pregnancy and/or childhood induces lesions in testicular DNA and that puberty promotes these lesions to testicular cancer. We tested the ochratoxin A hypothesis using ecologic data on the per-capita consumption of cereals, coffee, and pigmeat, the principal dietary sources of ochratoxin A. Incidence rates for testicular cancer in 20 countries were significantly correlated with the per-capita consumption of coffee and pigmeat (r = 0.49 and 0.54, p = 0.03 and 0.01). The ochratoxin A hypothesis offers a coherent explanation for much of the descriptive epidemiology of testicular cancer and suggests new avenues for analytic research.
PMID: 11899122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Toxins (Basel). 2010 Jun;2(6):1428-44.
Ochratoxin A: in utero exposure in mice induces adducts in testicular DNA.
Jennings-Gee JE1, Tozlovanu M, Manderville R, Miller MS, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Schwartz GG.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg) by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg) at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis). The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2010 Mar;50(1):29-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-4520.2009.00255.x.
Gender-dependent differences in the incidence of ochratoxin A-induced neural tube defects in the Pdn/Pdn mouse.
Genetic polydactyly/arhinencephaly mouse embryo, Pdn/Pdn, exhibits suppression of Gli3 gene expression. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a teratogen that causes neural tube defects (NTD) in mice. We investigated gender-dependent differences in the incidence of NTD induced by OTA in the Pdn/Pdn mouse. After administering 2 mg/kg OTA to Pdn/+ female mice, mated with Pdn/+ males, on day 7.5 of gestation, we examined the genotypes, sex and NTD of fetuses on day 18. Non-treated Pdn/Pdn had a 15.8% risk of NTD, and all NTD fetuses were female. When Pdn/Pdn embryos were exposed to OTA, the incidence of NTD increased to 16 (51.6%) of 31 Pdn/Pdn fetuses, and 10 (71.4%) of 14 male Pdn/Pdn fetuses exhibited NTD. From these results, it was speculated that NTD in OTA-treated male Pdn/Pdn were due to the synergistic effect between depressed Gli3 and altered sex-correlated gene expression from OTA treatment. After treatment with OTA, the embryos were recovered on day 9 and gene expressions, which were correlated with Gli3, telencephalic morphogenesis, formation of gonadal anlage, and gender-dependent differentiation were investigated. From real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis results, it was suggested that the manifestation of NTD in the male OTA-treated Pdn/Pdn might be due to the complicated altered gene expressions among Gli3, Wnt7b, Wnt8b, Fez1, Barx1, Lim1, Dmrt1, Igf1, Fog2, Dax1 and Sox9, and in particular, upregulation and gender-dependent difference in Barx1 and gender-dependent difference in Sox9 gene expressions might be noteworthy findings.
PMID: 20201966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Food Prot. 2014 Oct;77(10):1760-7. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-360.
Removal of Aflatoxin B1 and Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus Growth by the Use of Lactobacillus plantarum on Olives.
Kachouri F1, Ksontini H2, Hamdi M2.
Olives can be contaminated with a wide variety of molds (Aspergillus and/or Penicillium) that can be occurring naturally on fresh and processed olives and could support mycotoxin production. The aim of this work was to investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by fungi and its bioaccumulation in olives during storage and to study the impact of the application of Lactobacillus plantarum on the inhibition of mold development and production of AFB1. Two different treatments were applied: (i) olives with natural microflora and (ii) olives inoculated with Aspergillus flavus after elimination of natural microflora. AFB1 has been extracted from olives and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. Results showed the absence of this metabolite in the olives for the season 2008 to 2009. In 2009 to 2010, AFB1 was detected at the level of 11 μg/kg. The application of L. plantarum during the storage of olives favors the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 5.9 μg/kg correlated with a decrease in the amount of molds (86.3%). The images obtained by environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that L. plantarum was able to adhere to the olive surface and probably produce a biofilm that inhibits the multiplication of yeast and fungi by oxygen competition. Results showed an increase of antioxidant activity and amount of total phenolic compounds of olives, respectively, by 24 and 8.6%. In many olives contaminated with A. flavus, AFB1 was present at an initial level of 5.15 μg/kg and increased to 6.55 μg/kg after 8 days of storage. The biological detoxification of AFB1 in olives by L. plantarum is confirmed by the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 2.12 μg/kg on day 0 and its absence after 4 days of storage.
PMID: 25285494 [PubMed] free article here
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47(9):1329-34. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2012.672144.
Resveratrol inhibits reproductive toxicity induced by deoxynivalenol.
Kolesarova A1, Capcarova M, Maruniakova N, Lukac N, Ciereszko RE, Sirotkin AV.
The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the release of progesterone by porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) after exposure to toxic concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON), resveratrol (RSV), and their combination (DON with RSV). Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated without (control) or with treatments of natural substances at various doses for 24 h: RSV (10, 30 and 50 μg/mL) / DON (2000, 3000 and 5000 ng/mL), and their combination (10 μg/mL of RSV with 2000 ng/mL of DON; 30 μg/mL of RSV with 3000 ng/mL of DON; 50 μg/mL of RSV with 5000 ng/mL of DON). Progesterone was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Progesterone release was significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated by RSV at the doses 50 μg/mL but not at 30 and 10 μg/mL and by DON treatment at all used doses (2000, 3000 and 5000 ng/mL). RSV in combination with DON stimulated significantly (P < 0.05) the progesterone release by GCs at the highest doses (50 μg/mL of RSV with 5000 ng/mL of DON). On the other hand, the stimulatory effect of RSV in combination with DON was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in comparison with alone DON effect. In conclusion, our results indicate, (1) the dose-depended stimulatory effects of RSV, DON and combination of RSV with DON on release of steroid hormone progesterone and (2) reduction of the stimulatory effect of DON by RSV. Our in vitro results suggest that reproductive toxicity of animals induced by a mycotoxin - deoxynivalenol can be inhibited by a protective natural substance - resveratrol.
PMID: 22540658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010 Apr;27(4):510-20. doi: 10.1080/19440040903571747.
Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation.
Awad WA1, Ghareeb K, Bohm J, Zentek J.
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and is a significant contaminants due to its frequent occurrence in toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Since toxin production depends strongly on environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, Fusarium toxin contamination can not be avoided completely. Therefore, exposure to this toxin is a permanent health risk for both humans and farm animals. As cereal crops are commonly contaminated with DON and animal diets consist mainly of cereals, it can be assumed that animals are frequently exposed to DON-contaminated feeds. Many strategies can be undertaken to reduce the toxic effect of DON. In addition to the general necessity for minimizing all risk factors that might influence the contamination of cereals with DON, such as the so-called field toxins before harvest, several post-harvest strategies can be applied to counteract possible deleterious effects of this mycotoxin in farm animals. Another approach for decontamination in feedstuffs is the use of adsorbent materials. Adsorbent materials may bind mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce absorption and systemic toxicity. It has been shown that some adsorbents are suitable to alleviate the toxic effects of specific mycotoxins, but its efficacy against trichothecenes is practically zero. Therefore, alternative strategies to reduce animal and human health risk are needed. The use of microbial additives is a method which uses microorganisms having the capability to detoxify mycotoxins by metabolism or degradation prior to their resorption in the gastrointestinal tract. DON has been reported to be completely transformed to de-epoxy-DON by ruminal and intestinal microflora. Eubacterium BBSH 797 was capable of DON degradation and counteracted the toxic effects of DON in animals. This review focuses on the efficacy of microbial feed additives in ameliorating the toxic effects of DON. According to the results of experiments to date, it appears that microorganisms are the main living organisms suitable for this mycotoxin biodegradation. However, the use of this approach depends on its effectiveness from both a practical and economic perspective.
PMID: 20234966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2014 Jan;108:21-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.11.002. Epub 2013 Dec 1.
Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxin production by phenolic extract from Spirulina sp.
Pagnussatt FA1, Del Ponte EM2, Garda-Buffon J3, Badiale-Furlong E3.
Fusarium graminearum is a fungal species complex pathogenic occurring worldwide, mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes. The availability of efficient control measures that are less harmful to both the environment and the consumers is urgent. For such, phenolic acids (PAs) from natural sources are known to reduce fungal contaminations. This work aimed to identify the PAs present in a culture extract of Spirulina algae (strain LEB-18) and evaluate its effect on mycelial growth rate, glucosamine level, amylase activity and mycotoxin production by four strains of two lineages of F. graminearum. Results showed that amendment of potato dextrose media with LEB-18 extract (3% w/v), which was mainly composed by gallic acid, greatly reduced radial growth of fungal colonies compared to media containing a single PA and the control. Also, average reductions of 40% and 62% in the glucosamine levels and the amylase activity were observed. In general, the LEB-18 extract and the PAs reduced mycotoxin concentration, with an average reduction of 68% for the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol.
PMID: 24485311 [PubMed]
Chemosphere. 2013 Oct;93(6):1051-6. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.05.076. Epub 2013 Jun 22.
Antifungal efficacy of some natural phenolic compounds against significant pathogenic and toxinogenic filamentous fungi.
Zabka M1, Pavela R.
In terms of food safety, species of the Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera are considered the most significant because they produce the great majority of known mycotoxins. Developing resistance against commonly used fungicides have become a critical problem in area such as agriculture, the storage and production of food and even in human medicines. The need for research and development of new alternative antifungal treatment based on natural antifungal substances is obvious. Here, the antifungal efficacy of 21 phenolic components of essential oils and plant substances were tested against these filamentous fungi with respect to their different molecular structures. Minimum inhibitory concentration values MIC?? and MIC??? were successfully estimated for 15 substances by means of probit analysis. Thymol and carvacrol were evaluated as the most effective. The MIC?? values for thymol ranged from 30 to 52 μg mL(-1). The MIC??? values for thymol ranged from 76 to 255 μg mL(-1), respectively. For carvacrol, the MIC?? values ranged from 37 to 76 μg mL(-1), and the MIC100 ranged from 131 to 262 μg mL(-1). The results also revealed differences in the efficacy of phenols depending on molecular structures and different inter-species sensitivity.
PMID: 23800587 [PubMed]
J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Jul;93(9):2248-53. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6033. Epub 2013 Jan 28.
Equisetum arvense hydro-alcoholic extract: phenolic composition and antifungal and antimycotoxigenic effect against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in stored maize.
Maize is a very important cereal for human and animal diet, but it can be contaminated by moulds and their mycotoxins. On the other hand, natural plant products with antimicrobial properties could possibly used to control mycotoxigenic fungi in foods and feeds. In this study, Equisetum arvense extract was tested for the efficacy on Aspergillus section Flavi and Fusarium section Liseola growth. Natural contaminated maize was used in this study and extract was added under different water activities (a(w)) - 0.90 and 0.95 - for Aspergillus section Flavi and Fusarium section Liseola, respectively. Moulds were inoculated in maize and incubated during 30 days.
We confirm that E. arvense extract may be effective for the inhibition of Aspergillus section Flavi in maize with high levels of this mould. Moreover, this extract showed a good inhibition of growth on Fusarium section Liseola levels. Aflatoxin and fumonisin production was not affected by the extract.
E. arvense extract could be an alternative to synthetic fungicides to control maize mycobiota level in moist grain.
© 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
PMID: 23355286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2012 Dec;63(4):457-62. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2309.
The effects of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) essential oil components against ochratoxin-producing Aspergilli.
Sokoli?-Mihalak D1, Frece J, Slavica A, Delaš F, Pavlovi? H, Markov K.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. and of its components thymol and total phenols (total phenolic content, TPC) extracted from the plant on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, and A. niger. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for the essential oil and thymol, and selected concentration of the TPC extract inhibited fungal growth and ochratoxin A biosynthesis by more than 60 %, depending on the conditions and duration of incubation with the fungi. Essential oil showed the strongest inhibitory effect which may have been related to the synergistic or cumulative effects of its components.
PMID: 23334040 [PubMed - in process]
Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012 Dec;25(12):1605-16. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-06-12-0153-R.
Chlorogenic acid and maize ear rot resistance: a dynamic study investigating Fusarium graminearum development, deoxynivalenol production, and phenolic acid accumulation.
Atanasova-Penichon V1, Pons S, Pinson-Gadais L, Picot A, Marchegay G, Bonnin-Verdal MN, Ducos C, Barreau C, Roucolle J, Sehabiague P, Carolo P, Richard-Forget F.
Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Gibberella ear rot and produces trichothecene mycotoxins. Basic questions remain unanswered regarding the kernel stages associated with trichothecene biosynthesis and the kernel metabolites potentially involved in the regulation of trichothecene production in planta. In a two-year field study, F. graminearum growth, trichothecene accumulation, and phenolic acid composition were monitored in developing maize kernels of a susceptible and a moderately resistant variety using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array or mass spectrometry detection. Infection started as early as the blister stage and proceeded slowly until the dough stage. Then, a peak of trichothecene accumulation occurred and infection progressed exponentially until the final harvest time. Both F. graminearum growth and trichothecene production were drastically reduced in the moderately resistant variety. We found that chlorogenic acid is more abundant in the moderately resistant variety, with levels spiking in the earliest kernel stages induced by Fusarium infection. This is the first report that precisely describes the kernel stage associated with the initiation of trichothecene production and provides in planta evidence that chlorogenic acid may play a role in maize resistance to Gibberella ear rot and trichothecene accumulation.
PMID: 23035912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text
Int J Food Microbiol. 2011 Jan 31;145(1):140-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.12.001. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
Antifumonisin activity of natural phenolic compounds A structure-property-activity relationship study.
Dambolena JS1, Zygadlo JA, Rubinstein HR.
Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a Fusarium mycotoxin that has received considerable attention from food regulatory agencies, since it shows immunotoxic, neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and carcinogenic properties in animals. Although several publications have reported that some natural phenolic compounds can cause a reduction in mycotoxin production, little is known about the molecular properties related to their antitoxigenic activities. The objective of this work was to evaluate which of these molecular properties are important in antifumonisin activity, with this being the first structure-activity relationship study concerning the antimyctoxigenic activity of natural phenolic compounds. The results of the experimental determination of the FB(1) inhibition capacity for ten natural phenolic compounds revealed thymol, carvacrol, and isoeugenol followed by eugenol to be the most active antifumonisin compounds. Lipophilicity, molar refractivity and saturated area were demonstrated to be the molecular properties or descriptors which best explained the antifumonisin activity of these phenolic compounds. A mathematical expression, obtained by QSAR analysis, was able to predict the antifumonisin activity of other structurally related molecules. These findings could provide an important contribution in the search for new compounds with antifumonisin activity.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21195498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 May 15;156(2):127-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.03.013. Epub 2012 Mar 20.
Grape variety related trans-resveratrol induction affects Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A biosynthesis.
De Rossi P1, Ricelli A, Reverberi M, Bello C, Fabbri AA, Fanelli C, De Rossi A, Corradini D, Nicoletti I.
The paper reports the results of a study performed to investigate the influence of the grape variety on the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius on grape berries and the correlation between the amount of ochratoxin A (OTA) and the content of trans-resveratrol produced after fungal contamination. Variations in the amount of OTA produced by the fungus are observed depending on both grape variety and on the induction of trans-resveratrol determined during the infection. The obtained data suggest that if an increase in trans-resveratrol production in grape berries occurs early after the fungal infection, the berry exploits this compound to control OTA synthesis. If the increase in trans-resveratrol concentration is delayed after fungal infection (40 h), a control of OTA accumulation can not be achieved. The possibility of exerting significant control of OTA biosynthesis by this phytoalexin seems to rely in the promptness of its production, as occurs also in other fungus plant interactions and, in turn, seems to be dependent also on grape cultivar. In this fungus-plant system, trans-resveratrol appears to represent a defence-related compound toward A. carbonarius and OTA contamination.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 22483545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Sep;3(9):732-6. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60147-1.
The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria.
Hamidi A1, Mirnejad R, Yahaghi E, Behnod V, Mirhosseini A, Amani S, Sattari S, Darian EK.
To determine lactic acid bacteria's capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies.
In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied.
Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution.
Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.
Aflatoxin; Bacteria; ELISA test; Lactic acid; Mycotoxin
PMID: 23998015 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3757283 Free PMC Article
Toxins (Basel). 2013 Oct 23;5(10):1872-95. doi: 10.3390/toxins5101872.
Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses.
Baines D1, Sumarah M, Kuldau G, Juba J, Mazza A, Masson L.
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.
PMID: 24152990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3813917 Free PMC Article
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2015 Apr;32(4):518-32. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1011712. Epub 2015 Mar 2.
Natural occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in processed spices marketed in Malaysia.
Ali N1, Hashim NH, Shuib NS.
The analysis of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was performed in processed spices marketed in Penang, Malaysia, using immunoaffinity columns and HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The processed powdered spices analysed include dried chilli, fennel, cumin, turmeric, black and white pepper, poppy seed, coriander, 'garam masala', and mixed spices for fish, meat and chicken curry. Two different studies were carried out. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng g(-1) for each aflatoxin (AF) and 0.10 ng g(-1) for OTA (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1). In the first study, 34 commercial processed spices analysed with a mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 1.61 ng g(-1), 0.01-9.34 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 1.38 ng g(-1), 0.01-7.68 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively. The mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for OTA were 2.21 ng g(-1), 0.14-20.40 ng g(-1) and 79%, respectively. Natural co-occurrence of AF and OTA was found in 25 (74%) samples. In the second study of 24 commercial processed spices, the mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 8.38 ng g(-1), 0.32-31.17 ng g(-1) and 88%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 7.31 ng g(-1), 0.32-28.43 ng g(-1) and 83%, respectively. Fifteen positive samples for total AF and two positive samples for OTA exceeded the permissible Malaysian limit of 5 ng g(-1). Contamination of both mycotoxins in spices may represent another route of exposure to consumers due to their frequent and prolonged consumption, as spices are common ingredients in popular dishes among Asian countries.
HPLC-FD; aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; processed spices
PMID: 25658149 [PubMed - in process]
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010 Jan;27(1):43-53. doi: 10.1080/02652030903013252.
Assessment of deoxynivalenol (DON) adsorbents and characterisation of their efficacy using complementary in vitro tests.
Cavret S1, Laurent N, Videmann B, Mazallon M, Lecoeur S.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a prevalent and resistant mycotoxin found in cereals and related products. Adsorbents appear to provide an opportunity to decrease DON absorption in animals but, due to their specificity, it is very difficult to evaluate their actual efficacy. It is pointless to extrapolate results obtained with one mycotoxin to another and even to extrapolate results obtained in vitro in buffer to an in vivo situation. We carried out experiments to characterize the properties of potential DON adsorbents. Initial tests in buffer pH 7 allowed us to focus on six adsorbents: activated charcoal, cholestyramin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannans, algal beta-glycan, fungal beta-glycan and leguminous plant. The use of equilibrium sorption models suggested a non-saturated phenomenon and involved variable mechanisms according to the specific material. Subsequent tests with a Caco-2 cell model showed a high reduction in DON cytotoxicity on proliferative intestinal cells and DON absorption by differentiated intestinal cells when adsorbent was added (except for cholestyramine). Otherwise, values were not always in accordance with those obtained in buffer. Our work allowed us to identify five potential DON adsorbents and to propose a complementary in vitro test allowing improved determination of adsorbent properties.
PMID: 19760528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Food Control, Volume 47, January 2015, Pages 536–544
Lidiany Mendonça Zacaronia, Zuy Maria Magriotisa, Maria das Graças Cardosoa, , , Wilder Douglas Santiagoa, João Guilherme Mendonçaa, Sara S. Vieiraa, David Lee Nelson
The influence of contact time and the amount of adsorbent on the removal of copper from distilled cachaça was evaluated. The adsorption of copper was favored by a 1:50 ratio of mass of adsorbent (g) to volume of sugar cane spirits (mL). An equilibration time of 120 min for clay and 360 min for activated charcoal resulted in the removal of 68.7% and 98.3% of the copper, respectivamente. The isotherms were studied in the range of copper concentrations of 0 to 2000 mg L−1. The amount of copper adsorbed per unit weight of clay was 10.8 mg g−1, and for charcoal, it was 5.9 mg g−1. The isotherm results were tested in the Langmuir and Freundlich models and were found to adapt better to the Freundlich model. The removal of copper by clay and activated charcoal could be explained by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Given the organic and inorganic complexity of cachaça, the influence of this process on the flavor of the beverage was also evaluated. To this end, the analyses of aldehydes, higher alcohols, furfural, esters and volatile acidity were performed according to the methods established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. The results showed that the samples treated with clay adsorbed 3.6, 8.7, 9.4, 2.2 and 3.9% of the aldehydes, higher alcohols, furfural, esters, and volatile acidity, respectively. For the samples treated with activated charcoal, the results were 6.5, 15.3, 95.31, 2.0 and 34.0% for the aldehydes, higher alcohols, furfural, esters, and volatile acidity, respectively.
Food Addit Contam. 2005 Apr;22(4):379-88.
Recent advances on the use of adsorbent materials for detoxification of Fusarium mycotoxins.
Avantaggiato G1, Solfrizzo M, Visconti A.
The extensive use of adsorbents in the livestock industry has led to the introduction of a wide range of new products on the market, most of them claiming high in vitro mycotoxin adsorption capacity. However, adsorbents that may appear effective in vitro do not necessarily retain their efficacy when tested in vivo. Studies performed in our laboratory during the past few years aiming to evaluate the efficacy of various adsorbent materials in binding Fusarium mycotoxins are reported. Adsorption experiments were performed in in vitro screening tests for Fusarium mycotoxins at different pHs; by in vivo tests using the increase of the sphinganine to sphingosine ratio in rat urine and tissues as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure; and by a dynamic, computer-controlled, gastrointestinal model simulating the gastrointestinal tract of healthy pigs. Most of the commercially available mycotoxin-binders failed in sequestering in vitro Fusarium mycotoxins. Only for a small number of adsorbent materials was the ability to bind more than one mycotoxin demonstrated. Cholestyramine was proven to be an effective binder for fumonisins and zearalenone in vitro, which was confirmed for zearalenone in experiments using a dynamic gastrointestinal model and for fumonisins in in vivo experiments. No adsorbent materials, with the exception of activated carbon, showed relevant ability in binding deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. The in vitro efficacy of activated carbon toward fumonisins was not confirmed in vivo by the biomarker assay. The dynamic gastrointestinal model was a reliable tool to study the effectiveness of adsorbent materials in reducing the bioaccessibility of Fusarium mycotoxins, as an alternative to the more difficult and time-consuming studies with domestic livestock.
PMID: 16019808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Toxins (Basel). 2015 Oct; 7(10): 4294–4314.
Published online 2015 Oct 23. doi: 10.3390/toxins7104294
Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water
Samantha Jardon-Xicotencatl,1,† Roberto Díaz-Torres,2,† Alicia Marroquín-Cardona,3 Tania Villarreal-Barajas,4,† and Abraham Méndez-Albores1,*
Shohei Sakuda, Academic Editor
Author information ? Article notes ? Copyright and License information ?
Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.
Ochratoxin A in cow's milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples.
A method for determining ochratoxin A in milk has been elaborated in which the sample was subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction step and then purified on a silica gel column packed in a Pasteur pipet. The purified samples were analyzed by ion-pair liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The detection and quantitation limits for determination of ochratoxin A in cow's milk were 10 and 40 ng ochratoxin A/L milk, respectively. The same limits were valid for the analysis of human milk. A total of 36 cow's milk and 40 human milk samples were analyzed. All samples were collected in Sweden. Ochratoxin A was found in 5 (14%) of the cow's milk samples (range 10-40 ng/mL) and in 23 (58%) of the human milk samples (range 10-40 ng/L). Blood samples were collected from the mothers who gave milk samples. A total of 39 samples were analyzed. All blood samples contained ochratoxin A in concentrations exceeding the quantitation limit (60 ng/L blood). The mean concentration of ochratoxin A in the samples was 167 ng/L blood (range 90-940 ng/L). The concentration of ochratoxin A in human milk was < or = 0.1 of that in the human blood.
Effects of ochratoxin a on livestock production.
Battacone G1, Nudda A, Pulina G.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.
Ochratoxin A; food safety; livestock health; livestock performance