Organic Binders of Mycotoxins
Some complex indigestible carbohydrates such as polysaccharides in the cell walls of yeast, and bacteria such as glucomannans, and peptidoglycans, and others have been studied as mycotoxins binders. These come under the title of "Organic Binders" in the science world, and for now I am putting items that fit in this category here on this page as a place to save the data until further classification as I have time.
There is another article on fiber as a toxin binder which might be more in line with what you are looking for.
Undigestible dietary fiber has adsorbance potential for mycotoxins. Alfalfa fiber has reduced the effects of zearalenone in rats and swine and T-2 toxin in rats.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast
Live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was shown to reduce the detrimental effects of aflatoxin in chickens, and in another study in rats, but the heated (dead) yeast had no effect when tested on the rats.
There are researchers who claim they have unpublished data that shows the use of a single bolus of DON with glucomannan binder lead to an increase of plasma concentrations of DON when compared to a control group of chickens with only DON.
Br Poult Sci. 2013;54(4):515-23. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2013.798627. Epub 2013 Jul 2.
In vitro and in vivo protective effects of three mycotoxin adsorbents against ochratoxin A in broiler chickens.
Trailovig JN1, Stefanovig S, Trailovig SM.
The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo (in broiler chickens) ochratoxin A (OTA) adsorption efficiency of three different adsorbents: inorganic (modified zeolite); organic (esterified glucomannans) and mixed (inorganic and organic components plus enzymes). 2. The aim of the study was to investigate which of these adsorbents provided the best protection against the presence of residues of OTA in the pectoral muscle and liver of broilers given an OTA-contaminated diet. In addition, it was important to test and compare the results of adsorbent efficiency using two different in vitro methods. 3. The results from classical in vitro investigations carried out in the artificial intestinal fluid, showed that the inorganic adsorbent (Mz), exhibited the highest adsorption, having adsorbed 80.86 ± 1.85% of OTA, whereas average in vitro adsorption abilities of organic (30.52 ± 3.50%) and mixed (32.00 ± 2.60%) adsorbents were significantly lower. 4. In the investigation of absorption in everted sacs of broiler duodenal segments (Everted Duodenal Sacs Procedure), higher OTA adsorption in gut was exhibited by organic adsorbent, 74.26 ± 4.48%. Furthermore, the mean adsorption efficiency of mixed and inorganic adsorbent was 65.26 ± 4.76% and 45.75 ± 7.14%, respectively. 5. In the in vivo investigation, broilers were fed for 21 d on diets containing 2 mg/kg of OTA and supplemented with inorganic (Mz), organic (Ms) or mixed adsorbent (Mf) at the recommended concentration of 2 g/kg of feed. All three adsorbents significantly decreased OTA residue concentrations in the pectoral muscle and livers, but the order of effectiveness was mixed > organic > inorganic. The most efficient was the mixed adsorbent which decreased residue concentration by 72.50% in pectoral muscle and 94.47% in livers. 6. The Everted Duodenal Sac in vitro method provided results similar to those obtained in the in vivo study. However, further studies are required to investigate the efficiencies of adsorbents against various mycotoxins using this method.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 May;145(4):582-7. Epub 2007 Feb 12.
Protective effect of modified glucomannans and organic selenium against antioxidant depletion in the chicken liver due to T-2 toxin-contaminated feed consumption.
Dvorska JE1, Pappas AC, Karadas F, Speake BK, Surai PF.
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of T-2 toxin on the antioxidant status of the chicken and to study possible protective effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb) and organic selenium (Sel-Plex). Inclusion of T-2 toxin in the chickens' diet (8.1 mg/kg for 21 days) was associated with significant decreases in the concentrations of selenium (Se)(by 32.2%), alpha-tocopherol (by 41.4%), total carotenoids (by 56.5%), ascorbic acid (by 43.5%) and reduced glutathione (by 56.3%) in the liver, as well as a decrease in the hepatic activity of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) (by 36.8%). However, inclusion of modified glucomannans into the T-2 toxin-contaminated diet provided a partial protection against the detrimental effects of the mycotoxin on the antioxidant defences in the chicken liver. For example, the Se concentration in the liver was restored completely, although the Se-GSH-Px activity in the liver increased to only 81% of its control value. These protective effects of modified glucomannas were associated with a 45% reduction of lipid peroxidation in the liver in comparison to the effects of T-2 toxin alone. A combination of modified glucomannas with organic Se was shown to provide further protection against toxin-induced antioxidant depletion and lipid peroxidation in the chicken liver. Thus, the data clearly indicate a major protective effect of the mycotoxin-binder in combination with organic Se against the detrimental consequences of T-2 toxin-contaminated feed consumption by growing chickens.
PMID: 17350343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;135C(3):337-43.
Protective effect of modified glucomannans against aurofusarin-induced changes in quail egg and embryo.
Dvorska JE1, Surai PF, Speake BK, Sparks NH.
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannans (Mycosorb) on egg yolk and liver of the day-old quail after aurofusarin inclusion in the maternal diet. Fifty-four 45-day-old Japanese quail were divided into three groups and were fed ad libitum a corn-soya diet balanced in all nutrients. The diet of the experimental quail was supplemented with aurofusarin at the level of 26.4 mg/kg feed in the form of Fusarium graminearum culture enriched with aurofusarin or with aurofusarin plus Mycosorb at 1 g/kg feed. Eggs obtained after 8 weeks of feeding were analysed and incubated in standard conditions of 37.5 degrees C/55% RH. Samples of quail liver were collected from day-old hatchlings. Main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the egg yolk were analysed by gas chromatography, and tocopherols and tocotrienols were analysed by HPLC-based methods. Inclusion of aurofusarin in the maternal diet was associated with decreased proportions of docosahexaenoic acid and increased proportions of linoleic acid in major lipid fractions of the egg yolk as well as with decreased concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols in egg yolk and liver of a day-old quail. Inclusion of modified glucomannans (Mycosorb) into the quail diet simultaneously with aurofusarin showed a significant protective effect against changes in PUFA and antioxidant composition in the egg yolk and liver of quail. It is suggested that a combination of mycotoxin adsorbents and natural antioxidants could be the next step in counteracting mycotoxins in animal feed.
PMID: 12927908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:462925. doi: 10.1100/2012/462925. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
Effects of aflatoxin on liver and protective effectiveness of esterified glucomannan in Merino rams.
Colakoglu F1, Donmez HH.
The effects of total aflatoxin (AF) given orally on liver in Merino rams were studied. In addition, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of an esterified glucomannan (EG) for protection against aflatoxicosis. One-year-old 32 Merino rams were divided into four equal groups. The control group (C) was fed with the commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF. The EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 2 g/day of EG. The AF + EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF and 2 g/day of EG. After feeding period, tissue samples were taken from the liver in order to perform histological analyses. Vacuolar degeneration with small and large droplets and hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the AF group. The ceroid pigmentation was observed in macrophages in groups or one by one. It was observed that the fat rate in hepatocytes was 2.6% in the C group, 35.5% in the AF group, 2.9% in the EG group, and 9.6% in the AF + EG group. In conclusion, the adverse effects caused by aflatoxicosis on the liver could be ameliorated by adding EG to the ration.
PMID: 23304087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3532867 Free PMC Article
Mycopathologia. 2004 Feb;157(2):233-41.
Aflatoxin binders II: reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed.
Sequestering agents bind dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and reduce absorption from an animal's gastrointestinal tract. As a result, they protect an animal from the toxic effects of AFB1 and reduce transfer of the metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), into milk. Three experiments, using late-lactation Holstein cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed, were conducted to evaluate several potential sequestering agents for their abilities to prevent or reduce the transmission of AFM1 into milk. Six agents previously tested in our laboratory for AFB1 binding in vitro were evaluated in these experiments. These were: SA-20, an activated carbon (AC-A); Astra-Ben-20, a sodium bentonite (AB-20); MTB-100, an esterified glucomannan (MTB-100); Red Crown, a calcium bentonite (RC); Flow Guard, a sodium bentonite (FG); and Mycrosorb, a sodium bentonite (MS). Five of the six sequestering agents significantly (P < 0.01) reduced AFM1 contamination of milk (AB-20, 61%; FG, 65%; MS, 50%; MTB-100, 59%; and RC, 31%); whereas, AC-A, activated carbon, had no effect on AFM1 transmission at 0.25% of feed. By the first milking (1 day after cows consumed contaminated feed), AFM1 appeared in milk, then reached maximum levels after three days, and was absent from milk within four days after AFB1 was removed from the feed. Sodium bentonites at 1.2% of feed showed good potential as AFB1 binders; MTB-100, a yeast cell wall product, was equally effective at 0.05% in feed. Potential AFB1 binding agents should be evaluated experimentally to demonstrate efficacy. Our data show that sequestering agents can reduce AFM1 in milk of cows fed AFB1-contaminated feed.
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