Types Of Toxin/Mycotoxin Binders
On this page you will find a brief explanation of binders, and links to specific data on individual types of binders. If you want to read more about the use of binders, check out the articles "Toxin Binders, What Are They", and "Using Binders To Remove Mycotoxins".
Binders & How They Bind
Binders, also called sequestering agents, are used to both bind directly to toxins as well as to stop the enterohepatic reciruclation of toxins by binding to bile acids that are attached to toxins. BIle acids when bound to toxins may otherwise assist the re-uptake of the toxin from the intestines back into the bodies circulation or at least keep it in the enterohepatic circulation.
Below are various items that will bind toxins and mycotoxins specifically, or bind bile acids which are attached to toxins/mycotoxins.
Many foods have binding capability. Some much more binding ability than others. In 2007 Kahlon et al. did a series of in vitro experiments looking at various vegtables abilities to bind bile acids. They found beets and okra had the best bile acid binding capacity and the additionaly found steaming vegetables enhanced bile acid binding capacity significantly.
Cholestyramine has been used to bind bile acids as well as binding directly to a variety of biotoxins including some mycotoxins with very good results. It may be a better choice for ochratoxin and fumonisins than aflatoxin or trichothecenes. For aflatoxin the aluminosilicate clays may be a better binder. Calcium D-gucarate may help remove trchothecene. For most mycotoxins there is little or no research and the in vitro research is pretty useless. All binders should be taken away from foods, supplemenets, herbs and medicines.Practitioners & their patients should understand how to use binders before actually prescribing them or using them to decrease the possibility of side effects.
All binders have some similar activities as far as binding nutrients, drugs and the methods that should be used to take them away from food, drugs, herbs and supplements. I wrote very detailed directions on how to take cholestyramine that can be used for taking the other binders. Please refer to the cholestyramine and welchol page below to get directions on when to take binders, how to take them and precautions. The reserach I have read and my experience leads me to believe they all have very similar actions and safety issues as cholestyramine.
What Makes For A Good Binder
- Adsorption capacity
- Irreversible binding
- In vivo studies support use for the toxin in question
Some people use multiple binders together and in this manner hope to have these multi-mycotoxin binders be appropriate for the various mycotoxins that they may have in their bodies. Although there is little research of the use of multiple binders at one time, the idea of using them this way makes sense as binders are more effective at binding specific toxins. This depends on polarity and other factors. The fact that many people do not know which mycotoxins are even bothering them due to testing being in its infancy, means using a mix of binders would seem a smart way to go. Many people do use multiple binders in every day practice.
I would play devils advocate here though. I have a concern that some binders may bind each other. If you are taking a binder with a negative charge, and a binder with a positive charge to cover your bases, would they not end up binding each other to some degree as easily, or more easily than the toxins? There are researchers who have brought this up as a possibility for results they have seen during their study, so I am not the only one wondering about this.
Specific Types Of Binders
A list of Items that are used or researched as biotoxin binders:
- Charcoal Cholestyramine And Clay As Co-binders Of Toxins
- Cholestyramine & Welchol
- Diatomaceous Earth
- Aluminosilicate Clays - Includes Montmorillonite, Bentonite, Zeolite
- Fiber Research
- Green Tea - not a binder, but helps remove toxins/mycotoxins
- Organic Binders
- Probiotics - not a binder, but shown to metabolize some mycotoxins
- Vegetables as bile acid binders
Other possible binders are pectin (apple or modified citrus petctin), chitosan, beta-sitosterol, probably all water soluble fibers are helpful to one degree or another. There is quite a bit of research on various vegetables and their ability to bind toxins. I will work on getting this data up soon.
Also see biotransformation of mycotoxins as an alternative to binding them or as a co-treatment.
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