Fiber As A Mycotoxin Binder

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Fiber as a Mycotoxin Binder

Definition Of Fiber

It has been hard for scientists and clinicians to agree on the definition of fiber. Therefore, you may see data that seems contradictory in relation to this topic, and basic definitions of what a fiber is.

Categories Of Dietary Fiber

βeta-Glucans

β-Glucans are glucose polymers with a mixture of β-1,4 glycosidic bonds and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. Largely found in whole grains and mushrooms. Oats and barley are particularly rich in β-glucans as are many mushrooms, yeast, seaweed, algae, and bacteria. B-glucans are water soluble/viscous fiber.

Cellulose

Cellulose is a glucose polymer with β-1,4 glycosidic bonds found in all plant cell walls. Cellulose is in the plant skeleton. It is the protective shell around seeds.  (bran - the outer shell around grains that protect the seed?)

Gums

Gums are viscous polysaccharides often found in seeds, from bushes, trees, seaweed, or bacterial waste.They are thought to support healthy gut flora. Xanthan gum (synthesized from bacteria called Xanthomonas campestris, which causes black rot disease on plants)Xanthan gum has killed infants due to necrotizing enterocolitis. Adults have also had mild to severe gastrointestinal issues from Xanthan gum. Bacteria fed corn, wheat and soy - mostly GMO), Guar gum from guar beans ( less reactions than xanthan gum), Locust bean gum, Tara gum, acacia gum carragenum (spelling)

Hemicelluloses

Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of polysaccharides (sugar polymers) containing six-carbon sugars (hexoses) and five-carbon sugars (pentoses). Like cellulose, hemicelluloses are found in plant cell walls.

Inulin and oligofructose

Inulin is a mixture of fructose chains that vary in length and often terminate with a glucose molecule (8). Oligofructose is a mixture of shorter fructose chains that may terminate in glucose or fructose. Inulin and oligofructose occur naturally in plants, such as onions and Jerusalem artichokes.  (is inlulin a type of fructan?)

Lignin

Lignin is not a carbohydrate as are many fibers,  it is enstead a polyphenolic compound that is found in the cell walls of woody plants and seeds. is it also in algae?

Pectins

Pectins are viscous polysaccharides that are particularly abundant in fruit and berries. found in beet roots, apples, citrus peels, to a lesser amount in pears, cherries, peaches

Resistant starch

Naturally occurring resistant starch is sequestered in plant cell walls and is therefore inaccessible to human digestive enzymes. Bananas and legumes are sources of naturally occurring resistant starch. Resistant starch may also be formed by food processing or by cooling and reheating.

 

Fibers Protective Effect On The Body

Fiber is most well known for preventing constipation. Besides keeping our bowels regular, it also feeds our intestinal flora and they make short chain fatty acids from the fiber such as butyrate which our body uses and has been associated with reduced risk of a variety of diseases. This is prbably why fiber in the diet is related to maintaining healthy intestinal permeability, and decreasing inflammatory colon issues as well as reducing the risk of colorectal cancer.  Fiber has been shown to assist in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, as well as blood pressure which prevents hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. As a general rule, fiber will decrease gastric emptying and give a person a sense of feeling satiated or full after eating. This may be one way it helps prevent obesity. Additionally it attaches to bile and removes it with the feces. This can be useful in that bile itself is often attached to toxins that need to be removed from the body.

Types Of toxins Removed From The Body By Ingesting Fiber

Arsenic- Modified citrus pectin - 15 grams increased excretion of arsenic, cadmium and lead

Cadmium - Inulin, through action on gut flora of rats

Cadmium - Modified citrus pectin - 15 grams increased excretion of arsenic, cadmium and lead

Cadmium - Wheat bran: In mice 10% diet of wheat bran shown to bind cadmium

Endotoxins - Oat fiber significantly reduced endotoxin and was even better with Taurine added.

Lead - Modified citrus pectin - 15 grams increased excretion of arsenic, cadmium and lead in the urine.

PCBs - Inulin, through action on gut flora (in petri dish, not in body study)

T2-toxin (trichothecene mycotoxins) - Alfalfa - thought to be due to binding of toxin with lignin in Alfafa. (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin tried but not useful.)

 

Fibers Classified As To Their Solubility In Water

  • Water soluble fiber - also called visous fiber
  • Water insoluble fiber - also called nonviscous fiber

 

Water Soluble Fiber

This is the viscous fiber that herbalists call by the name mucilaginous. It is a gooey, or gel-like fiber that you see in mucilaginous herbs. All mucilaginous herbs have water soluble fiber in them that gives them that gooey consistancy.  These are herbs such as Marshmallow and Slippery elm, or food such as Okra. We know these herbs and foods slow the emptying of the stomach, delay or decrease the absorption of some nutrients in the small intestine and lower serum cholesterol. They have many health benefits from feeding our healthy gut flora, and decreasing constipation (when taken with plenty of water), to stabalizing blood sugar. Categories of fiber considered to be water soluble, or viscous is B-glacans, gums, and mucilage.

Water Insoluble Fiber

This is also called nonviscous fiber, and more commonly what people calle roughage. It adds bulk to the stool in some cases of constipation. It is often the outer part of seeds or the skeleton of plants that gives the plant structure and sturdiness. This fiber helps to bulk up your stool and prevent constipation. It too can be used as fuel for gut flora, but not as well as the water soluble fibers.

Water Insoluble Fiber As A Toxin Binder

In an in vitro study (outside of body) water-insoluble fiber (wheat bran) was shown to be better at binding lead, mercury and cadmium than water soluble fiber at pH 2.0 and 7.0. Colon fermentation partially released the heavy metals from dietary fibers.

Water Soluble Fiber As A Toxin Binder

All water soluble fiber will bind various toxins, including mycoxtins to some degree. I have collected research data below on a variety of these water soluble fibers and their binding ability.

Psyllium is a soluble gel-forming fiber that has been shown to bind to the bile acids in the gut and prevent their normal reabsorption, similar to the bile acid sequestrant drugs. This means any toxin that is bound to the bile acid and is dumped into the gut, can be removed in the feces if psyllium is used to bind the bile acid that the toxin is already bound to. Studies show water soluble fibers in general appear to work this way. They also may bind other things such as drugs and nutrients, so moderation and timing is important in use of water soluble fibers. They should also be taken with a lot of water, or they will cause constipation, and in severe cases can cause an impaction of the bowel, if inadequate water is taken with them.

In a study, water soluble fibers such as Guar gum and lignin were shown to bind a significant amount of bile acids just as does cholestyramine. However, the water insoluble fiber of celluose, wheat bran and oat bran did not.

In another sudy, rat diets containing 10% of various water-soluble fibers (citrus pectin, konjak mannan, guar gum) as compared to a fiber-free diet increased biliary excretion of total bile acids. Water-soluble dietary fiber-mediated increases in bile acid excretion were totally attributable to increases in glycine-conjugates. Thus, these fibers greatly increased the bile acid glycine-to-taurine ratio (G/T). Fecal bile acid excretion and the activities of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in rats fed various water-soluble dietary fibers approximately doubled as compared to the respective values for rats fed a fiber-free diet. In contrast, water-insoluble dietary fibers (cellulose, corn bran, chitin; 10% in the diets) as well as cholestyramine (5% in the diet) considerably decreased bile acid excretion.Glycine/taurine ratio in rats fed water-insoluble fibers was significantly lowered as compared to G/T in animals fed a fiber-free diet. Cholestyramine did not affect the G/T ratio of bile acids.  Whereas cholestyramine greatly increased fecal bile acid excretion and the activities of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, water-insoluble fibers did not significantly affect them. Various water-soluble fibers decreased hepatic concentration and urinary excretion of taurine as well as the activity of hepatic cysteine dioxygenase. In contrast, water-insoluble fibers considerably increased hepatic taurine concentrations and enzyme activities. Taurine metabolism were unaffected by cholestyramine. It was suggested that the types of dietary fiber affected hepatic taurine synthesis and thus modified bile acid glycine/taurine ratios.

 

 

Fiber And Toxin Binding Research

Metabolism. 1998 Aug;47(8):959-64.
The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of Cholazol H, a chemically functionalized insoluble fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties in hamsters.
Wilson TA1, Romano C, Liang J, Nicolosi RJ.

Abstract
Cholazol H (Alpha-Beta Technology, Worcester, MA), a chemically functionalized, insoluble dietary fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties, was studied in 30 male F1 B Golden Syrian hamsters for its effect on plasma lipid concentrations and early atherogenesis in experiment 1. In experiment 2, 30 male Golden Syrian hamsters were studied for the effects on plasma lipids and fecal excretion of bile acids. In experiment 1, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 5% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, hamsters were continued on the diet with either 0% drug (hypercholesterolemic diet [HCD]), 0.5% cholestyramine (CSTY), or 0.5% Cholazol H for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 6, 10, and 14, and early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was measured at week 14. Relative to HCD, CSTY and Cholazol H significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (TC) (-37%, P < .03, and -30%, P < .04, respectively) and plasma very-low and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (nonHDL-C) (-45%, P < .02, and -36%, P < .03, respectively) with no significant effects on plasma HDL-C or triglycerides (TG). Despite similar reductions in nonHDL-C, only Cholazol H significantly prevented early atherosclerosis (-38%, P < .02) relative to HCD. In experiment 2, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10% coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol and either 0% drug HCD, 0.5% CSTY, or 0.5% Cholazol H for 4 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 2 and 4, and fecal bile acids were measured at week 4. Both Cholazol H and CSTY were equally effective in significantly lowering plasma TC (-16%, P < .003, and -13%, P < .01, respectively) and nonHDL-C (-22%, P < .004, and -18%, P < .02, respectively), with no significant effect on HDL-C and TG relative to HCD. Cholazol H and CSTY produced a significantly greater concentration of fecal total bile acids (39%, P < .001, and 28%, P < .002, respectively) relative to HCD. Also, there was a 48% (P < .002) and 65% (P < .001) greater fecal concentration of cholic acid (CA) for Cholazol H-treated hamsters compared with HCD- and CSTY-treated hamsters, respectively. Cholazol H also significantly increased fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid (DCA; 56%, P < .02) compared with HCD. In summary, Cholazol H is as effective as CSTY for prevention of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and early atherosclerosis in hamsters.
PMID: 9711992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Hazard Mater. 2011 Feb 15;186(1):236-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.120. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid.
Zhang N1, Huang C, Ou S.

Abstract
Water-soluble dietary fibers from apple peels and water-insoluble dietary fibers from wheat bran and soybean-seed hull were used to evaluate their binding capacities for four toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As), lard, cholesterol, and bile acids. The water-soluble dietary fibers showed a higher binding capacity for three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; and a lower binding capacity for lard, compared to the water-insoluble ones. A mixture of the dietary fibers from all samples - apple peels, wheat bran, and soybean-seed hull - in the ratio 2:4:4 (w/w) significantly increased the binding capacity of water-insoluble dietary fibers for the three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; moreover, the mixture could lower the concentrations of Pb(2+) and Cd(+) in the tested solutions to levels lower than those occurring in rice and vegetables grown in polluted soils. However, all the tested fibers showed a low binding capacity for the toxic anion, AsO(3)(3-).
Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

 

 

Metabolism. 1998 Aug;47(8):959-64.

J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Sep 22;58(18):10277-81. doi: 10.1021/jf102127k.
Comparative effects of cellulose and soluble fibers (pectin, konjac glucomannan, inulin) on fecal water toxicity toward Caco-2 cells, fecal bacteria enzymes, bile acid, and short-chain fatty acids.
Chen HL1, Lin YM, Wang YC.

Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cellulose and three soluble dietary fibers, pectin, konjac glucomannan (KGM), and inulin, on the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and to investigate the fecal components that potentially modulate the fecal toxicity, that is, bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Six-week-old BALB/cJ mice were randomly allocated to consume an AIN-93 diet that contained no dietary fiber (fiber-free) or 5% (w/w) cellulose, pectin, KGM, and inulin for 3 weeks. Feces were collected during days 18-21. Fecal waters were co-incubated with Caco-2 cells to determine the cytotoxicity and DNA damage. In addition, the fecal bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids were determined. Results indicated that all fiber diets similarly increased the survival rate (%) of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells as compared with the fiber-free diet. The inhibition of fecal water-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells was greater for the pectin and inulin diets than for the cellulose and KGM diets. In contrast, cellulose exerted the greatest inhibitory effect on the fecal β-glucuronidase activity. Cellulose and all soluble dietary fibers reduced the secondary bile acid concentrations in the fecal water, but only soluble fibers increased the fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, as compared with no fiber. Therefore, this study suggests that all dietary fibers substantially reduced the fecal water toxicity, which is associated with decreased secondary bile acid levels by all fibers, reduced fecal β-glucuronidase activity by cellulose, and increased short-chain fatty acid levels by soluble dietary fibers.

 

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Aug;41(8):979-94.
Factors affecting intestinal absorption of highly lipophilic food microconstituents (fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids and phytosterols).
Borel P.

Abstract
Highly lipophilic food microconstituents (HLFMs) with octanol-water partition coefficients log10 P(c) > 8 include the fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D and K) and phytochemicals with potential health benefits, the carotenoids and phytosterols. It has been assumed that these compounds have the same metabolism in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and that they follow the same fate as lipids. However, a literature review shows that the metabolism of HLFMs in the upper gastrointestinal tract depends on each HLFM species. For example, some HLFM esters are hydrolyzed mainly by pancreatic lipase, others by bile salt-stimulated lipase; some HLFMs are apparently absorbed by passive diffusion, others by a transporter. Also, although some factors (HLFM molecular species, fat, food matrix) affect absorption efficiency of most HLFMs, other factors (fibers, microconstituents) apparently affect absorption only of some HLFMs. The mnemonic acronym SLAMENGHI, previously proposed to list the factors affecting the bioavailability of carotenoids, was used here to review current knowledge of the factors suspected to affect the intestinal absorption of HLFMs. The available data reveal numerous gaps in the knowledge of the metabolism of HLFMs and the factors that affect their absorption. These gaps need to be filled to be able to formulate HLFMs so as to promote greater absorption efficiency.

Water Soluble Fiber as a Mycotoxin Binder

J Hazard Mater. 2011 Feb 15;186(1):236-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.120. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid.
Zhang N1, Huang C, Ou S.

Abstract
Water-soluble dietary fibers from apple peels and water-insoluble dietary fibers from wheat bran and soybean-seed hull were used to evaluate their binding capacities for four toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, and As), lard, cholesterol, and bile acids. The water-soluble dietary fibers showed a higher binding capacity for three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; and a lower binding capacity for lard, compared to the water-insoluble ones. A mixture of the dietary fibers from all samples - apple peels, wheat bran, and soybean-seed hull - in the ratio 2:4:4 (w/w) significantly increased the binding capacity of water-insoluble dietary fibers for the three toxic cations, cholesterol, and sodium cholate; moreover, the mixture could lower the concentrations of Pb(2+) and Cd(+) in the tested solutions to levels lower than those occurring in rice and vegetables grown in polluted soils. However, all the tested fibers showed a low binding capacity for the toxic anion, AsO(3)(3-).
Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Sep 22;58(18):10277-81. doi: 10.1021/jf102127k.
Comparative effects of cellulose and soluble fibers (pectin, konjac glucomannan, inulin) on fecal water toxicity toward Caco-2 cells, fecal bacteria enzymes, bile acid, and short-chain fatty acids.
Chen HL1, Lin YM, Wang YC.

Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cellulose and three soluble dietary fibers, pectin, konjac glucomannan (KGM), and inulin, on the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and to investigate the fecal components that potentially modulate the fecal toxicity, that is, bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Six-week-old BALB/cJ mice were randomly allocated to consume an AIN-93 diet that contained no dietary fiber (fiber-free) or 5% (w/w) cellulose, pectin, KGM, and inulin for 3 weeks. Feces were collected during days 18-21. Fecal waters were co-incubated with Caco-2 cells to determine the cytotoxicity and DNA damage. In addition, the fecal bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids were determined. Results indicated that all fiber diets similarly increased the survival rate (%) of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells as compared with the fiber-free diet. The inhibition of fecal water-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells was greater for the pectin and inulin diets than for the cellulose and KGM diets. In contrast, cellulose exerted the greatest inhibitory effect on the fecal β-glucuronidase activity. Cellulose and all soluble dietary fibers reduced the secondary bile acid concentrations in the fecal water, but only soluble fibers increased the fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, as compared with no fiber. Therefore, this study suggests that all dietary fibers substantially reduced the fecal water toxicity, which is associated with decreased secondary bile acid levels by all fibers, reduced fecal β-glucuronidase activity by cellulose, and increased short-chain fatty acid levels by soluble dietary fibers.

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Aug;41(8):979-94.
Factors affecting intestinal absorption of highly lipophilic food microconstituents (fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids and phytosterols).
Borel P.

Abstract
Highly lipophilic food microconstituents (HLFMs) with octanol-water partition coefficients log10 P(c) > 8 include the fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D and K) and phytochemicals with potential health benefits, the carotenoids and phytosterols. It has been assumed that these compounds have the same metabolism in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and that they follow the same fate as lipids. However, a literature review shows that the metabolism of HLFMs in the upper gastrointestinal tract depends on each HLFM species. For example, some HLFM esters are hydrolyzed mainly by pancreatic lipase, others by bile salt-stimulated lipase; some HLFMs are apparently absorbed by passive diffusion, others by a transporter. Also, although some factors (HLFM molecular species, fat, food matrix) affect absorption efficiency of most HLFMs, other factors (fibers, microconstituents) apparently affect absorption only of some HLFMs. The mnemonic acronym SLAMENGHI, previously proposed to list the factors affecting the bioavailability of carotenoids, was used here to review current knowledge of the factors suspected to affect the intestinal absorption of HLFMs. The available data reveal numerous gaps in the knowledge of the metabolism of HLFMs and the factors that affect their absorption. These gaps need to be filled to be able to formulate HLFMs so as to promote greater absorption efficiency.

 

 

Metabolism. 1998 Aug;47(8):959-64.

 

Ann Intern Med. 1995 Oct 1;123(7):493-9.
Combination therapy with colestipol and psyllium mucilloid in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Spence JD1, Huff MW, Heidenheim P, Viswanatha A, Munoz C, Lindsay R, Wolfe B, Mills D.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To test whether combining psyllium mucilloid with half the usual dose of colestipol reduces the adverse effects associated with colestipol and maintains or increases its efficacy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. This strategy might make bile acid sequestrants, which are seldom used because they cause adverse effects such as bloating and constipation, more tolerable and less expensive.
DESIGN:
A randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled trial.
SETTING:
An outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital.
PATIENTS:
121 patients who had moderate primary hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level > 6 mmol/L and < 8 mmol/L; triglyceride level < 3 mmol/L) after following a low-fat diet for 1 year (National Cholesterol Education Program Step Two diet).
INTERVENTION:
5 g of cellulose placebo; 5 g of colestipol; 2.5 g of colestipol plus 2.5 g of psyllium; or 5 g of psyllium three times daily before meals for 10 weeks.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
At baseline and at weeks 4 and 10, fasting blood lipid levels and apoprotein concentrations were measured and a quality-of-life instrument was completed.
RESULTS:
A combination of 2.5 g of psyllium and 2.5 g of colestipol was better tolerated than and as effective as either 5 g of colestipol alone or 5 g of psyllium alone. The combination therapy and colestipol alone did not differ significantly with respect to changes in individual lipid values. The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by 18.2% (95% CI, 12.3% to 24%) with the combination therapy; by 10.6% (CI, 2.0% to 15.4%) with colestipol alone; by 6.1% (CI, 1.5% to 10.6%) with psyllium alone; and by 0.1% (CI, -4.8% to 7%) with placebo (P = 0.0002). Combination therapy reduced the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL significantly more than did colestipol alone or psyllium alone (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
These findings suggest that adding psyllium to half the usual dose of bile acid sequestrant resins maintains the efficacy and improves the tolerability of these resins.

HERE

 

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Sep 14;1258(2):115-21.
Fermentable carbohydrates exert a more potent cholesterol-lowering effect than cholestyramine.
Favier ML1, Moundras C, Demigné C, Rémésy C.

Abstract
The purpose of this work was to assess the respective role of bile acid excretion and of the end-products of cecal fermentations in the cholesterol-lowering effect of complex carbohydrates. The effects of two different fermentable carbohydrates (guar gum, beta-cyclodextrin), and sequestrant resin (cholestyramine) have been investigated in male Wistar rats. Guar gum and beta-cyclodextrin are broken down in the large bowel, with fermentation rich in propionic acid (37% against 26% for control), whereas cholestyramine did not enhance cecal fermentation. beta-Cyclodextrin and guar gum were less potent than cholestyramine to enhance bile acids and sterol excretion. Nevertheless, fermentable carbohydrates exerted a more potent cholesterol-lowering effect than cholestyramine. beta-Cyclodextrin also depressed triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TGRLP). Fermentable carbohydrates lowered cholesterol of LDL and HDL1 fractions. The induction of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase was practically proportional to rate of fecal steroid excretion. Moreover, with beta-cyclodextrin, hepatic HMG-CoA reductase induction was concomitant to a decrease in fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity. Thus, the cholesterol-lowering effect of fermentable carbohydrates could be related to a depressed lipogenesis, as well as to an accelerated removal of HDL1, in relation to an elevated hepatic demand of cholesterol. In conclusion, fermentable carbohydrates could favour cholesterol elimination and have a general lipid-lowering effect by exerting more complex physiological effects than cholestyramine.

 

Nutrition Research, Volume 18, Issue 5, May 1998, Pages 893–903
In vitro binding of bile salt to rhubarb stalk powder
Vinti Goel, Ph.D1, Sukhinder K. Cheema, Ph.D2, Luis B. Agellon, Ph.D2, Buncha Ooraikul, Ph.D1, Michael I. McBurney, Ph.D1, Tapan K. Basu, Ph.D, 1

Abstract
A new fiber source was developed by blanching, drying and grinding the fresh stalks of rhubarb, an underutilized and universal crop. The product was found to contain 74% total dietary fiber (66% insoluble and 8% soluble dietary fiber), on dry weight basis. Preliminary studies involving experimental animals and hypercholesterolemic subjects revealed that this fiber source is potentially hypolipidemic, though the underlying mechanism still remains unknown. To investigate its mechanism of action, this study was undertaken to determine its potential to complex with bile salts in vitro. Comparison of various fiber sources showed that the rhubarb fiber had the maximum ability to bind taurocholate, and bound 11 and 2.5 fold more bile salt than cellulose and wheat bran respectively. The binding increased linearly with increasing rhubarb fiber concentration. Increasing the bile salt concentration also increased the binding in a dose dependent manner and showed a saturation at a concentration greater than 10mM. The rhubarb fiber had a binding capacity of 40 μmol of taurocholate per gram. Cholate competed taurocholate for binding indicating that conjugation of bile salt was not a mandatory requirement for the binding Based on the chemical composition of rhubarb stalk powder, the bile salt binding property appears to be due to a combination of factors present in this product such as its high fiber content (insoluble with pectin), hydrophilic nature and high ash content. The ability to bind bile salts might be responsible for its hypocholesterolemic action observed in experimental animals and humans.

 

Cereal Chemistry, 2000, July/August
In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Rice Bran, Oat Bran, Wheat Bran, and Corn Bran
July 2000, Volume 77, Number 4
Pages 518 - 521T. S. Kahlon 1 , 2 and F. I. Chow 1

The in vitro bile acid binding by rice, oat, wheat, and corn brans was determined using a mixture of bile acids normally secreted in human bile at a physiological pH of 6.3. The objective of the study was to relate bile acid binding of cereal brans to health promoting properties. Three experiments were conducted testing substrates on an equal weight (dry matter) basis, an equal total dietary fiber (TDF) basis, and an equal TDF and equal fat basis. Each experiment was repeated to validate the results (for a total of six experiments). The relative in vitro bile acid binding of the cereal brans on an equal TDF basis considering cholestyramine as 100% bound was rice bran 51%, wheat bran 31%, oat bran 26%, and corn bran 5%. The data suggest that cholesterol lowering by rice bran appears to be related to bile acid binding. The primary mechanism of cholesterol lowering by oat bran may not be due to bile acid binding by soluble fiber. Bile acid binding did not appear to be proportional to the soluble fiber content of the cereal brans tested. Bile acid binding by wheat bran may contribute to cancer prevention and other healthful properties.

 

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2014 Nov 6:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Cholesterol-lowering effect of rice bran protein containing bile acid-binding proteins.
Wang J1, Shimada M, Kato Y, Kusada M, Nagaoka S.

Abstract
Dietary plant protein is well known to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is a good source of protein. The present study examined whether feeding rats a high-cholesterol diet containing 10% rice bran protein (RBP) for 10 d affected cholesterol metabolism. Rats fed dietary RBP had lower serum total cholesterol levels and increased excretion of fecal steroids, such as cholesterol and bile acids, than those fed dietary casein. In vitro assays showed that RBP strongly bound to taurocholate, and inhibited the micellar solubility of cholesterol, compared with casein. Moreover, the bile acid-binding proteins of the RBP were eluted by a chromatographic column conjugated with cholic acid, and one of them was identified as hypothetical protein OsJ_13801 (NCBI accession No. EAZ29742) using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action of the RBP may be caused by the bile acid-binding proteins.
KEYWORDS:
bile acid; cholesterol; micelle; rice bran protein
PMID: 25374002 [PubMed]

 

Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 1995 May;86(5):226-33.
Clinical trial of a combination of rice bran fiber and cholestyramine for promotion of fecal excretion of retained polychlorinated dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl in Yu-Cheng patients.
Iida T1, Nakagawa R, Hirakawa H, Matsueda T, Morita K, Hamamura K, Nakayama J, Hori Y, Guo YL, Chang FM, et al.
Author information
Abstract
A clinical trial using the combination of rice bran fiber (RBF) and cholestyramine (CHO) was carried out on Yu-Cheng patients in 1993-1994. By the analysis of blood and stool samples collected from the patients before and after (or during in the case of stool), it was verified that the administration of RBF and CHO is effective for excretion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (p < 0.05) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (p < 0.05). However, the degree of effectiveness varied upon individual patients from 60 to 160% for 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, from 30 to 110% for 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran and from 50 to 190% for PCB, respectively.
PMID: 7628813 [PubMed]

 

Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 1993 May;84(5):282-6.
[Effects of treatment with rice bran fiber and cholestyramine on clinical and laboratory findings in Yusho patients]. (PCB poisoning)
Tsuji H1, Ikeda K, Nomiyama K, Fujishim a M.

Abstract
To investigate the therapeutic effects of rice bran fiber (30 g/day) and cholestyramine (12 g/day) for Yusho, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory examinations were studied before, during and after 14 day-treatment in four patients with Yusho. The increases of bowel movements and abdominal distention were observed in two of these patients, although no effect was seen in physical findings. In peripheral blood cells, red blood cell counts decreased significantly, from 430 +/- 47 x 10(4)/mm3 (mean +/- SD) to 378 +/- 48 x 10(4)/mm3 (p < 0.01) after therapy. Hemoglobin as well as hematocrit levels were also reduced significantly afer the therapy. However, no significant effect of the treatment was observed in white blood cell counts or platelet counts. In biochemical parameters, a significant depression was observed in total cholesterol levels after the therapy (from 262 +/- 31 mg/dl to 179 +/- 33 mg/dl; p < 0.005). A significant elevations was observed in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and sodium, while significant depressions were found in serum levels of cholinesterase, total protein, albumin, gamma-globulin, and potassium.
PMID: 8392485 [PubMed]

 

Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 1991 May;82(5):310-6.
[Stimulation of the fecal excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (KC-600) by diets containing rice bran fiber and cholestyramine].
Takenaka S1, Morita K, Takahashi K.

Abstract
Among the eight kinds of dietary fiber tested, rice bran fiber (RBF) mostly bound Kanechlor 600 (PCB) in vitro. The PCB bound to dietary fiber was in proportion to the lignin content in dietary fiber. We investigated whether RBF, lignin, cholestyramine and their combination stimulate the fecal excretion of PCB in rats. In the group fed a diet containing 10% (w/w) RBF, fecal excretion of PCB was stimulated. In the group fed a diet containing 10% (w/w) RBF and 5% (w/w) cholestyramine, more PCB was excreted in the feces. However, the group fed a diet containing 10% (w/w) RBF and 5% (w/w) lignin excreted the same amount of PCB as the group fed a diet containing 10% (w/w) RBF. The total PCB excreted into the feces for 21 days in the groups fed 10% (w/w) RBF, 10% (w/w) RBF and 5% (w/w) lignin, 5% (w/w) cholestyramine and 10% (w/w) RBF and 5% (w/w) cholestyramine diet was 3.4, 3.8, 2.3 and 5.7 times, respectively, that of the control. The stool transit time of rats fed 10% (w/w) RBF and 5% (w/w) cholestyramine diet was one hour faster than that of rats fed a 5% (w/w) cholestyramine diet. Therefore, we concluded that RBF has the greatest effect when administered in combination with cholestyramine on the fecal excretion of PCB.
PMID: 1655599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Aug 13. [Epub ahead of print]
Rice Bran Extract Compensates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cellular Model of Early Alzheimer's Disease.
Hagl S1, Grewal R1, Ciobanu I1, Helal A2, Khayyal MT3, Muller WE1, Eckert GP1.

Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in brain aging and has emerged to be an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to neurodegeneration and the loss of physical abilities seen in patients suffering from this disease. We examined mitochondrial dysfunction in a cell culture model of AD (PC12APPsw cells) releasing very low amyloid-β (Aβ40) levels and thus mimicking early AD stages. Our data show that these cells have impaired energy metabolism, low ATP levels, and decreased endogenous mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, protein levels of PGC1α as well as of Mitofusin 1 were decreased. PC12APPsw cells also showed an increased mitochondrial content, probably due to an attempt to compensate the impaired mitochondrial function. Recent data showed that stabilized rice bran extract (RBE) protects from mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. To assess the effect of a RBE on mitochondrial function, we treated PC12APPsw cells for 24 h with RBE. Key components of RBE are oryzanols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols, all substances that have been found to exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial function. RBE incubation elevated ATP production and respiratory rates as well as PGC1α protein levels in PC12APPsw cells, thus improving the impaired mitochondrial function assessed in our cell culture AD model. Therefore, RBE represents to be a promising nutraceutical for the prevention of AD.
PMID: 25125472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

Nutrition Research Volume 18, Issue 5, May 1998, Pages 893–903
In vitro binding of bile salt to rhubarb stalk powder
Vinti Goel, Ph.D1, Sukhinder K. Cheema, Ph.D2, Luis B. Agellon, Ph.D2, Buncha Ooraikul, Ph.D1, Michael I. McBurney, Ph.D1, Tapan K. Basu, Ph.D, 1

Abstract
A new fiber source was developed by blanching, drying and grinding the fresh stalks of rhubarb, an underutilized and universal crop. The product was found to contain 74% total dietary fiber (66% insoluble and 8% soluble dietary fiber), on dry weight basis. Preliminary studies involving experimental animals and hypercholesterolemic subjects revealed that this fiber source is potentially hypolipidemic, though the underlying mechanism still remains unknown. To investigate its mechanism of action, this study was undertaken to determine its potential to complex with bile salts in vitro. Comparison of various fiber sources showed that the rhubarb fiber had the maximum ability to bind taurocholate, and bound 11 and 2.5 fold more bile salt than cellulose and wheat bran respectively. The binding increased linearly with increasing rhubarb fiber concentration. Increasing the bile salt concentration also increased the binding in a dose dependent manner and showed a saturation at a concentration greater than 10mM. The rhubarb fiber had a binding capacity of 40 μmol of taurocholate per gram. Cholate competed taurocholate for binding indicating that conjugation of bile salt was not a mandatory requirement for the binding Based on the chemical composition of rhubarb stalk powder, the bile salt binding property appears to be due to a combination of factors present in this product such as its high fiber content (insoluble with pectin), hydrophilic nature and high ash content. The ability to bind bile salts might be responsible for its hypocholesterolemic action observed in experimental animals and humans.

 

Food Chemistry
Volume 79, Issue 4, December 2002, Pages 425–429
In vitro binding of bile acids by soy protein, pinto beans, black beans and wheat gluten
T.S. Kahlon, , C.L. Woodruff

Abstract
The in vitro bile acid binding by soy protein, pinto beans, black beans and wheat gluten was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted, testing substrates on an equal protein basis. Considering cholestyramine as 100 bound, the relative in vitro bile acid bindings for the soy protein, pinto beans, black beans and wheat gluten, on equal protein basis, were 17, 23, 30 and 12%, respectively. Bile acid binding by soy protein, pinto beans and black beans may influence cholesterol lowering, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and reduction of plaque formation in the aortic arch. Higher bile acid binding by black beans and pinto beans than soy protein is encouraging; it suggests that there may be components, other than the bean protein, with the desired health-promoting properties. As for wheat gluten, bile acid binding may relate to its potential for improving gastrointestinal health and reduction of the risk of cancer. These results point to bile acid binding by soy protein, pinto beans, black beans and wheat gluten as indicative of their health-promoting potential.

 

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Jun;64(4):461-6. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2012.749838. Epub 2012 Dec 10.
Binding of cholesterol and bile acid to hemicelluloses from rice bran.
Hu G1, Yu W.

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using hemicellulose from rice bran to scavenge cholesterol and bile acid in vitro study. This paper demonstrates that rice bran hemicellulose A (RBHA), rice bran hemicellulose B (RBHB) and rice bran hemicellulose C (RBHC) have the potential for binding cholesterol and bile acid. The quantity of cholesterol and bile acid bound varies from one rice bran fibre to another. As it can be inferred from the results of the study, RBHB was characterized by the highest capacity for cholesterol binding, followed by RBHC and RBHA. Binding of cholesterol and bile acid to rice bran insoluble dietary fibre (RBDF) and cellulose from rice bran was found to be poor. Lignin from rice bran was the least active fraction for binding cholesterol and bile acid. This confirms that the RBHB preparation from defatted rice bran has great potential in food applications, especially in the development of functional foods.
PMID: 23215624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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