Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)
What Is Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a substance found throughout the body. The highest levels are normally found in the nervous system and gut. It is considered to be a neuroendocrine peptide. Low levels are seen in mold illness patients. It is also low in people with chemical sensitivities.
VIP's Job In The Body
VIP, is a 28-amino acid (aa) peptide that acts as a neuroendocrine hormone, putative neurotransmitter and cytokine. The presence of VIP and specific VIP binding sites in defined pathways in the brain indicate that it may play an important role in central nervous system (CNS) function. VIP is now widely accepted as a co-transmitter, with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of both vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. VIP may also promote neuronal survival and regulate glycogen metabolism in the cerebral cortex. VIP stimulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla. In the immune system, VIP regulates T cell traffic and inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of T cells by inhibiting interleukin-2 production. Other actions of VIP include stimulation of electrolyte secretion and protection against oxidant injury.
VIP is also thought to play a role in neurodevelopment and in neuroprotection following injury to the central nervous system. NAP (davunetide), an active fragment of the VIP-inducted neuroprotective protein ADNP (activity-dependent neuroprotective protein) is in clinical development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
This neuroendocrine peptide is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in peripheral tissues, such as various areas of the skin. It is a nueromodulator and neurotransmitter.
VIP and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) play diverse and important roles in the central nervous system, with functions in the control of circadian rhythms, learning and memory, anxiety and responses to stress and brain injury. VIP and PACAP play important roles in the control of immunity and inflammation, the control of pancreatic insulin secretion, the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and as co-transmitters in autonomic and sensory neurons.
VIP is now widely accepted as a co-transmitter, with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxation of both vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle and with acetylcholine in exocrine glands VIP may also promote neuronal survival and regulate glycogen metabolism in the cerebral cortex. VIP stimulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla In the immune system, VIP regulates T cell traffic and inhibits mitogen-activated proliferation of T cells by inhibiting IL-2 production Other actions of VIP include stimulation of electrolyte secretion and protection against oxidant injury.
Receptors affected strongly by VIP are VPAC1 and VPAC2 and to a lesser degree PAC1. The VPAC1 receptor is widely distributed in the CNS, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is also in peripheral tissues including the liver, lung and intestine. The receptor is also in T lymphocytes, smooth muscles in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and reproductive system.
VIP is released from autonomic and sensory nerve fibers in the skin. VIP-containing nerve fibers as well as VIP receptors have been identified in the skin. VIP released from nerve endings in the epidermis (outer skin layer) binds to its receptor on skin cells called keratinocytes, thereby modulating their function.
- Neuroendocrine hormone
- Putative neurotransmitter
- Mediates vasodilation
- lowers arterial blood pressure
- Increases cardiac output
- Mediates immunomodulation
- Mediates mast cell degranulation
- Helps control or send nerve signals
- Helps relax certain muscles along the gastrointestinal tract
- Increases glycogenolysis
- Helps relax bronchioles, smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder.
- It increases the amount of water and electrolytes released from the pancreas and gut
- It triggers the release of hormones from the pancreas, gut, and hypothalamus
- It helps break down fat and glycogen
- It stimulates bile flow
- It blocks gastrin, and gastric acid
Relationship Of VIP With CIRS (Moldy People)
Research by Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker has shown VIP corrects gene activation abnormalities in CIRS caused by exposure to water damaged buildings. Their research showed changes in genes controlling both ribosomes and mitochondria. Dr. Shoemaker has made testing for gene activity or suppression in relation to CIRS (ProgeneDx) availble at www.survivingmold.com.
Gene ID: 7432, updated on 29-Oct-2014, Also Known As: PHM27 The protein encoded by this gene (VIP) belongs to the glucagon family. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. GENE ID LINK
Aviptadil (4-28) is currently being used as an agonist to study VIP receptor activity. Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker has an excellent 1.5 year study showing VIP appears to be safe at the amounts used in the study as well as effective for treating CIRS in the patients who were refractive to prior treatment for CIRS.
Although VIP replacement used properly can be very effective for people with mold associated illness, it does have side effects. Possible side effects of headaches, dizziness, palpitations, and irritability on VIP generally pass quickly.
It is possible that VIP may cause pancreatitis in some cases and therefore lipase levels should be monitored when it is used as a medicine.
There are a variety of pharmacologic agonists that have been created to interact with VIP responsive receptors. The research is extensive.
VIP nasal spray may increase MSH. This is an important point for folks who have CIRS.
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